Endoscopy is a procedure in which a thin, flexible tube, with a light and camera attached to it is used to directly view the esophagus, stomach and duodenum (upper small intestine). In the case that the procedure is performed on children, the intent is typically to help determine the cause of stomach pain, diarrhea, throwing up, or trouble growing.  It is also an effective means of removing foreign bodies in the case of accidental ingestion. The doctor may additionally choose to perform a biopsy, (take very small tissue samples) in some cases. These samples will then be sent to a pathology laboratory to be evaluated.

Some reasons why your child may need an upper endoscopy include:

    Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Inflammatory bowel disease
    Crohn’s disease
    Intestinal polyps
    Allergic reactions
    Gallstones
    Ulcers
    Acid reflux
    Food Allergies
    Infection
    Celiac Disease
    Lactose intolerance
    Malnutrition or obesity

Gastroenterologists who specialize in the treatment of children, specifically, are called  pediatric gastroenterologists. These doctors treat children ages newborn through teen. They need to have specialized training, including at least 4 years of medical school, three years of pediatric residency training, three years of additional training in pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition, including medical research and treatment of infants, children, and teens with digestive, liver, and nutritional disorders, and certification in pediatrics from the American Board of Pediatrics, and in gastroenterology and nutrition from the American Board of Pediatrics Sub-board in Pediatric Gastroenterology. Endoscopic procedures pediatric gastroenterologists perform include esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy.

If your child is scheduled to have an endoscopic procedure, it is extremely important to follow all of your doctor's instructions exactly. Failure to follow the instructions provided may cause the appointment to be cancelled. In most cases, fasting for a certain period is required. Your healthcare provider will tell you when your child should stop eating or drinking before the procedure. This also applies to babies and children who are breastfeeding. You should have previously discussed any medications your child may be taken (especially aspirin), in case they need to be stopped prior to the procedure as well. Many medications can cause anesthesia to be ineffective or otherwise conflict with the medications used during the procedure. Be sure the doctor knows if your child has any known allergies to medications, sedatives, or anesthesia or if they have any heart or lung problems.

Depending on your child's age the doctor may explain the procedure, and in some cases use pictures. In most cases, you will remain with your child after the IV sedation is administered, while they fall asleep. This will help your child to relax and may relieve any anxiety they may be experiencing. The procedure itself usually takes approximately 15 to 20 minutes.

After the procedure your child will be moved to a recovery room, in order to allow time for the medication to wear off. Unless directed otherwise, your child will be able to resume eating and drinking as usual, and return to his or her normal routine. It is normal for your child to experience some gassiness, or feeling bloated. Upper endoscopy will often cause a sore throat for 24 to 36 hours following the procedure.

In most cases, endoscopy is a very safe procedure. In rare cases, life threatening problem can occur. Some risks of endoscopic procedures are the possibility or puncturing or tearing of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum due to increased pressure as the scope and air are being passed through. Unexpected bleeding or infection can occur. A slow or irregular heartbeat, or low blood pressure, may occur and can cause sweating or fainting. Difficulty breathing due to fluid entering the lungs is also a possiblity. Always discuss the possible side effects and risks involved before agreeing to any medical procedure. Be sure you understand the signs of a potential problem or emergency so you know what to look for after you return home.

 

 

Endoscopy is the term used to describe the direct visiual inspection of any part of the interior of the body, by means of an optical viewing instrument referred to as an endoscope, introduced through a natural orifice or through a small surgical incision. Natural ports of entry are used for procedures such as viewing the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and colon. Artificial ports of entry are typically used in procedures such as laparoscopy (examination of the abdominal cavity or performance of minor abdominal surgery using a laparoscope) and arthroscopy (the use of an arthroscope to diagnose an injury to or disease of a joint or to perform minor surgery on a joint). Endoscopy encompasses many techniques and is performed for a large variety of reasons.

Gastroscopy, also referred to as upper gastro intestinal endoscopy and esophageo gastro duodenoscopy, is a particular type of endoscopy that is specifically used to inspect the upper gastro intestinal tract - the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Gastroscopy is performed with the intention of looking for abnormalities, obtaining a biopsy, or in treatments such as banding (the use of elastic bands to apply pressure and constrict parts of the body such as a bleeding hemorrhoid or esophageal varix) and sclerotherapy (a treatment for esophageal bleeding that involves the use of an endoscope and the injection of a sclerosing solution into the veins). While endoscopy can utilize surgical incisions depending on the intended procedure and area of viewing, gastroscopy is limited to insertion of the endoscope through the mouth. Both imaging procedures use the same instrument, an endoscope, and both can be enhanced with ultrasound. While endoscopy may require general anesthesia, gastroscopy requires only local anesthesia and sedation. Symptoms that may require gastroscopy include vomiting blood, stomach pain, difficulty swallowing, or suspected ulcer.

Colonoscopy is essentially the opposite of gastroscopy. Colonoscopy is performed with the intention of viewing the rectum and colon. The device is inserted through the anus, and advanced to the large intestine, extending up as high as the end of the small intestine. Colonoscopy allows an examination of the entire colon, though a more specific procedure called sigmoidoscopy may be sufficient. Sigmoidoscopy only examines up to the sigmoid, the most distal part of the colon. In some cases, both colonoscopy and gastroscopy may be performed at the same time. Colonoscopy may be performed to determine the cause of dark blood in the stool, to test for abnormalities in the colon, such as polyps that may indicate cancer, to test for inflammatory bowel disease, or to determine the cause of anemia, for example.

Endoscopy is considered a minimally invasive procedure, and complications for all procedures may include perforation or bleeding, reaction to the medicine used for sedation, and infection. In rare cases, nerve damage may occur. For gastroscopic procedures, side effects patients may typically experience include a sore throat, or a temporary loss of the gag reflex. The most common side effects patients may experience after a colonoscopy is a feeling of cramping or bloating, which is usually relieved after the passage of gas. Patients should always discuss risks and complications thoroughly with their physician before having any surgical procedure.

 

 

 

What is a nasal endoscopy?

Nasal endoscopy is an endoscopic procedure performed by an otolaryngologist ( Ear, Nose, and Throat Specialist) for the purpose of viewing the structures inside the nose and sinuses. The procedure can be accomplished using either a flexible fiber optic endoscope or a rigid endoscope. A flexible fiber optic endoscope can more easily navigate tighter spaces due to it's typically smaller diameter, but requires both hands for operation. A rigid endoscope has traditionally offered superior image quality, and allows the physician to obtain tissue and culture samples as well as potentially perform surgery in some cases.

What is nasal endoscopy used for?

The most common reasons nasal endoscopy will be performed is in the diagnosis of medical problems such as stuffiness or obstruction in the nasal passages, sinusitis, nasal polyps, nasal tumors, and epistaxis (nose bleeding). Nasal endoscopy can help to determine if the cause of your symptoms are due to infection, inflammation, or an allergic reaction. Symptoms that a patient may seek help for include, for example, drainage of mucous, facial pain or pressure in the area of the sinuses, nasal obstruction, congestion, or a decrease in the patient's sense of smell. Other symptoms may include ear infections, a feeling of ear fullness, or ear popping.

What preparations are made for the procedure?

Usually, just prior to the nasal endoscopy being performed, the physician will spray the nose with both a nasal decongestant to reduce any swelling in the nasal membranes and allow for the endoscope to more easily pass through, and a local anesthetic to numb the area and decrease the chance of sneezing from sensitivity. Patients rarely experience any pain from the procedure. However, if a patient has an unusually small or narrow nasal cavity, or if the nasal membranes are severely swollen, an additional numbing spray may be used for discomfort.

What does the nasal endoscopy procedure entail?

This medical procedure is usually performed in the doctor's clinic. The patient will be seated, and the physician will insert the endoscope into the patient's nose. The endoscope will be attached to a CRT monitor, providing live video, and the patient will remain awake and even be able to follow the procedure. The doctor is able to explain the findings as the exam is performed. The physician will be looking for signs of swelling in the mucous membranes, the presence of drainage from the sinus openings, or deviation of the nasal septum. He / she will also search for the presence of nasal polyps, nasal bleeding, or the presence of tumors within the nasal and sinus cavities. If infection is suspected, a sample may be taken to determine the cause of the infection. In the case that polyps or other masses are found, they may be removed at this time. The endoscope will be withdrawn and in most cases the patient will be allowed to return home the same day. The patient will be advised not to eat or drink for a few hours after the procedure.

What complications may arise?

While nasal endoscopy is generally a low-risk procedure for most people, all surgery carries some risk. Patients with bleeding disorders or those who take blood thinning medication such as aspirin or other anticoagulants should be sure to tell their physician, so that precautions may be taken. In some cases, the surgery may be inappropriate for those patients highly susceptible to nosebleeds. Other potential risks include adverse reactions to the anesthesia, or infection. In patients with heart disease, light-headedness or feeling faint may occur. Other common side effects include sore throat or discomfort in the period following the procedure.

As with any medical procedure, be sure to consult with your doctor about the necessity of the procedure, and whether the potential benefit outweighs the risk in your particular case. Discuss any medical conditions, medications, or other circumstances that may be relevant. Be sure you understand the possible side effects and what to do should a side effect or other unforeseen circumstance arise.

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Properly caring for your endoscopic equipment is a key factor in reducing the risk of cross-contamination leading to infection due to microbial growth. A single scope can be used hundreds or even thousands of times each year. Your patients’ health and safety rely on your use of correct techniques to clean, disinfect, and sterilize your endoscopic equipment.

Appropriate cleaning can reduce up to 95% of all organic debris and micro-organisms present on the endoscopes. Failure to remove organic matter, such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, chemical salts, and other substances found in blood or mucous, could prevent the disinfectant from being able to function correctly, or even cause the instrument channels in the endoscope to become blocked and not function correctly.

It is essential that guidelines for thoroughly and correctly cleaning and disinfecting the endoscope are strictly adhered to. The process must be performed after every use. Familiarize yourself with and be sure to follow manufacturer and regulatory guidelines for your area when using and cleaning any endoscopy equipment.

Step 1:

Immediately upon finishing the procedure and removing the endoscope from the patient, it should be wiped down. You’ll use a cloth or sponge treated with a special cleansing detergent, which needs to be sterilized or disposed of after use.

Step 2:

Bring the endoscope to the specified cleaning area, Flush it with cleaning solution until it is clear, and suction the endoscope with air, as determined by the manufacturer’s instructions. Enclose the endoscope inside a container and move it to the area specified for disinfection and sterilization – a room that is completely separate from the area the procedure is performed is required in order to minimize the risk of infection.

Step 3:

Manual cleaning is the next step in the process. Prepare a fresh solution of water and medical-grade, neutral pH detergent that is low-foaming and formulated for endoscopes and fill the basin, following the manufacturer’s instructions for dilution and use. Fully submerge the endoscope in the solution, then brush all channels with a small, soft brush and non-abrasive and lint-free cleaning tools. Rinse and repeat until all visible debris has been removed. Some soaking may be required. Rinse thoroughly and use forced air to remove all water from the endoscope. Finish by drying with a soft, lint-free cloth.

Step 4:

Disinfection and sterilization is used to kill any microbes that are still present on the equipment. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions in the use of these products, and test regularly for effectiveness. An automated re-processor can be used for this step, or the operation can be performed manually.
If disinfecting manually, submerge the endoscope and all removable parts in the cleaning solution. Flush this solution through all channels, with no air pockets remaining. Allow the endoscope to remain in the solution for the appropriate time.
Air should be used to purge all channels before removing the endoscope, followed by rinsing, drying, and flushing with alcohol.
In the case of automated disinfection, manually clean the endoscope prior to placing it in the machine. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions to complete the full cleaning cycle from start to finish, without interruptions. If the process is interrupted, it will be necessary to start over. Small channels in some endoscopy tools may need to be reprocessed by hand if the machine cannot do so. Finally, apply a 70% isopropyl alcohol rinse cycle. This may need to be performed by hand. Carefully dry the equipment and store it appropriately to protect against contamination.

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Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a useful tool for visualizing the GI tract, and for the purpose of diagnosing conditions within the small intestine, such as Crohn's Disease, peptic ulcers, cancer, celiac disease, gastro esophageal reflux disease, and unexplained bleeding, for example.

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M.D. Endoscopy

As the industry leader of pre-owned, refurbished and used endoscopy equipment, M.D. Endoscopy, Inc. offers one of the largest inventories of endoscopes in the world. We offer products from all major manufacturers including but not limited to Olympus, Pentax and Fujinon with the only and most comprehensive 24-month warranty in the industry.

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